Poultry Trends - 2019 - 32

epithelial cells and measurement was collected
by a fluorescence-based cellular test system.
Vero cells were treated with aliquots of culture
supernatant of the above-mentioned bacterial
strain (considered as "test item"), and Bacillus
cereus ATCC 14579 (DSMZ DSM-31; considered
as "positive control").
No cytotoxicity was observed for the negative
control and for the B. amyloliquefaciens CECT
5940 strain. In contrast, the positive control
(supernatant of the B. cereus strain) showed an
increase in the fluorescence signal, indicating
pronounced cytotoxicity even when applied at the
lowest concentration on the Vero cells.
Thereby, the study concluded that the DFM
strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 does
not have toxigenic potential.
ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL
SUSCEPTIBILITY AND POTENTIAL
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE GENES
In addition to the safety studies, a phenotype test
determining the minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC, EFSA 2012) for a group of antimicrobials
and analyses of the WGS for the presence of
known antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes were
performed on the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
CECT 5940.
The susceptibility of the strain was tested
against ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin,
neomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol,
tetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin,
trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, rifampin
and clindamycin. Tests were made in microtiter
plates containing serial dilutions of the antibiotics
according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards
Institute (2006). In addition, the existing WGS of
the strain was compared with references in the
comprehensive antibiotic resistance database
(CARD).
To assess the phenotypic antimicrobial
resistance of the B. amyloliquefaciens CECT
5940, the MIC values for a selected group of
antimicrobials were determined in triplicate
measurements. The cut-off values for Bacillus
published by EFSA (2018) served as reference.
Reference cut-off values for antimicrobials
not listed by EFSA were taken from the

recommendations for Bacillus published by the
Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition (SCAN
2001). As result, B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940
showed susceptibility to all antibiotics tested, with
MIC values lower than the reference values. The
bioinformatic evaluation showed that the strain
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 does not
carry any AMR genes for antimicrobials considered
as critically important antimicrobials in humans and
animals.
ASSESSMENT OF HEAT STABILITY UNDER
COMMERCIAL FEED PROCESSING
Pelleting involves a mechanical process in which
small feed ingredient particles are agglomerated
into larger particles by applying moisture, heat,
and pressure. There are several nutritional and
performance benefits associated with pelleting;
nevertheless, this process can be detrimental
to certain feed ingredients (Thomas et al., 1998)
and feed additives such as DFMs. Spore-forming
Bacillus spp. DFMs have the ability to withstand high
temperatures, chemicals, and drying processes.
Although Bacillus spp. spores are generally resistant,
testing is important to demonstrate stability
throughout feed processing since this characteristic
is strain specific.
The stability of B. amyloliquefaciens CECT
5940 strain at different pelleting temperatures
was demonstrated. For this test, spores of
B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 were mixed
into a broiler starter feed for a final expected
concentration of 1 × 10 6 CFU/g feed for every
feed batch. Mash feed was conditioned for six
minutes at 190 ºF (87.8 ºC) and 195 ºF (90.5
ºC) and then pelleted at the same temperatures.
The pelleted feeds were then dried and cooled
under ambient conditions estimated at 70 ºF
(21 ºC) and retention time of 15 minutes. Total
spores were counted from 10 mash feed samples
obtained immediately after mixing and then from
another 10 samples obtained after the mash
feed had been conditioned and subjected to the
different pelleting temperatures. Feed samples
were analyzed for spore counts and results
were reported as Log 10 CFU/g feed. Results
were analyzed by JMP ® v13.1.0 and reported as
means and standard deviation (SD). Additionally,



Poultry Trends - 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Poultry Trends - 2019

Poultry Trends - 2019
Contents
Latest poultry, egg market forecasts available in 2019 WATT Executive Guide to World Poultry Trends
World poultry production to top 128 million tons in 2019
Slow poultry growth driven by developing countries’ demand
Brazil, China, US lead poultry meat production to 2028
World egg production reaches 80-million-metric-ton mark
How poultry trade volumes differ around the world to 2028
WATT AgNet Top Companies: Top world broiler, egg rankings for 2019
World’s Top Feed Companies: 102 companies rise to the top in 2018..
Global egg consumption rising with changing diets
Poultry Trends - 2019 - Poultry Trends - 2019
Poultry Trends - 2019 - Cover2
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 1
Poultry Trends - 2019 - Contents
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 3
Poultry Trends - 2019 - Latest poultry, egg market forecasts available in 2019 WATT Executive Guide to World Poultry Trends
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 5
Poultry Trends - 2019 - World poultry production to top 128 million tons in 2019
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 7
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 8
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 9
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 10
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 11
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 12
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 13
Poultry Trends - 2019 - Slow poultry growth driven by developing countries’ demand
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 15
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 16
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 17
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 18
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 19
Poultry Trends - 2019 - Brazil, China, US lead poultry meat production to 2028
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 21
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 22
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 23
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Poultry Trends - 2019 - 29
Poultry Trends - 2019 - World egg production reaches 80-million-metric-ton mark
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Poultry Trends - 2019 - How poultry trade volumes differ around the world to 2028
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 41
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Poultry Trends - 2019 - WATT AgNet Top Companies: Top world broiler, egg rankings for 2019
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 47
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Poultry Trends - 2019 - World’s Top Feed Companies: 102 companies rise to the top in 2018..
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 55
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 56
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Poultry Trends - 2019 - Global egg consumption rising with changing diets
Poultry Trends - 2019 - 59
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